In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum unit of any physical entity involved in an interaction. Behind this, one finds the fundamental notion that a physical property may be "quantized," referred to as "the hypothesis of quantization". This means that the magnitude can take on only certain discrete numerical values, rather than any value, at least within a range. There is a related term of quantum number. An example of an entity that is quantized is the energy transfer of elementary particles of matter (called fermions) and of photons and other bosons.

A photon, for example, is a single quantum of light, and may thus be referred to as a "light quantum". The energy of an electron bound to an atom (at rest) is said to be quantized, which results in the stability of atoms, and of matter in general.

As incorporated into the theory of quantum mechanics, this is regarded by physicists as part of the fundamental framework for understanding and describing nature at the infinitesimal level.

Normally quanta are considered to be a discrete packets with energy stored in them. Planck considered these quanta to be particles that can change their form (meaning that they can be absorbed and released). This phenomenon can be observed in the case of black body radiation, when it is being heated and cooled

The word "quantum" comes from the Latin "quantus," for "how much". "Quanta" meaning short for "quanta of electricity" was used in a 1902 article on the photoelectric effect by Philipp Lenard, who credited Helmholtz for using the word in the area of electricity. However, the word quantum in general was well known before 1900.Max Planck used "quanta" to mean "quanta of matter and electricity" (electrons) , gas, and heat. In 1905, in response to Planck's work and the experimental work of Lenard, who explained his results by using the term "quanta of electricity", Albert Einstein suggested that radiation existed in spatially localized packets which he called "quanta of light" ("Lichtquanta").

The concept of quantization of radiation was discovered in 1900 by Max Planck, who had been trying to understand the emission of radiation from heated objects, known as black body radiation. By assuming that energy can only be absorbed or released in tiny, differential, discrete packets he called "bundles" or "energy elements", Planck accounted for the fact that certain objects change colour when heated.On December 14, 1900, Planck reported his revolutionary findings to the German Physical Society and introduced the idea of quantization for the first time as a part of his research on black body radiation. As a result of his experiments, Planck deduced the numerical value of h, known as the Planck constant, and could also report a more precise value for the Avogadro-Loschmidt number, the number of real molecules in a mole, and the unit of electrical charge, to the German Physical Society. After his theory was validated, Planck was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918 for his discovery.

While quantization was first discovered in electromagnetic radiation, it describes a fundamental aspect of energy not just restricted to photons.




 Fundamental Bio-energy and Biophysics

I wish to look back into the fundamental  bio-energy and biophysics history inside of the western culture, considering  the related study of the bio-energy phenomenon done by scientists who work in this sector.Of course i could not include all the scientists because the abundance of researchers.



Franz Anton Mesmer was the Austrian physician after whom mesmerism was named, a famously flamboyant believer in the healing powers of an unknown physical property he dubbed "animal magnetism." He enjoyed a popular following and claimed to be able to "channel" magnetic powers in order to cure a variety of ailments, which he did for public display. Pressured by the medical establishment to leave Vienna, he found favor in Paris at the end of the 1770s. Eventually his practices came under scrutiny and a panel of scientists (including Ben Franklin) concluded in 1784 that there was no scientific basis for his theories. Discredited, he left France in 1791 and eventually settled in Switzerland, where he died in 1815. By no means completely dismissed, his theories brought on successors who claimed they could tap an unseen magnetic force within the body, and Mesmer is often credited with influencing the development of hypnotism as psychotherapy.

Mesmer’s Theory of Animal Magnetism

Mesmer was particularly interested in the medical implications of Newton’s theory of gravitation. Newton had suggested that the human body might contain an invisible fluid that responds to planetary gravitation, like the tides of the ocean. Taking up this idea, Mesmer performed an initial series of experiments in which he moved mineral magnets around the bodies of his patients. In response to such treatments, Mesmer’s patients reported experiencing strong sensations of energy moving through their bodies. They also experienced all sorts of involuntary movements, including often violent convulsions. These convulsions left many patients feeling much improved, or even cured of their ailments. Apparently, mineral magnets could have great therapeutic value through their

ability to influence human magnetic fields in this fashion.



Baron Dr. Carl (Karl) Ludwig von Reichenbach (full name: Karl Ludwig Freiherr von Reichenbach) (February 12, 1788, Stuttgart - January 1869 Leipzig, Germany) was a notable chemist, geologist, metallurgist, naturalist, industrialist and philosopher, and a member of the prestigious Prussian Academy of Sciences. He is best known for his discoveries of several chemical products of economic importance, extracted from tar, such as eupione, waxy paraffin, pittacal (the first synthetic dye) and phenol (an antiseptic). He also dedicated himself in his last years to research an unproved field of energy combining electricity, magnetism and heat, emanating from all living things, which he called the Odic force.

The baron Karl von Reichebach continued the  Meismer rescharce and study , hi was a chemist, physicist   and industrial buissenes man , his studys and boocks  there are very important in the evolution of the chemist, hi discovery the kerosene and parafin.  The  money comming from this discoverys  allow him to contined the experiment interrupted  by Mesmer, so, hi formuladed the theory  that : (at the base of the universe  esistence there is a form of unknown energy , measureble ,accumuleteble whith machinery) : who hi call OD ( from Odino god).

Reichebach is one of the few scientist who leaved many books to as and in many case there are the rappresentation of ‘’forgotten science’’ ,

is interessed to underline  what  the baron  ,during a experiment faund:

hi observe that ,in said of  the artificial magnetic field  in corrispondence whit same kaind of  alignment whit  earth's field we ken see one multicolor circle, and, the succession of the colors

was whit the same sequency  of the solar ligth through the prism ( the same fenomenon of the raimbows ) going from violet to red and startin again forming a spiral.


 Albert Abrams (1863–1924) was an American doctor, well known during his life for inventing machines which he claimed could diagnose and cure almost any disease. These claims were challenged from the outset. Towards the end of his life, and again shortly after his death, his claims were conclusively demonstrated to be both false and intentionally deceptive.

 Abrams was born in San Francisco around 1863, giving dates a couple of years either way on occasions. Between 1910 and 1918, Abrams published several books on a medical technique he called Spondylotherapy, a manipulative technique not dissimilar to Chiropractic and Osteopathy, but involving electricity. Abrams described the theory and practice of spondylotherapy in a 1910 book by that name.

Abrams promoted an idea that electrons were the basic element of all life. He called this ERA, for Electronic Reactions of Abrams, and introduced a number of different machines which he claimed were based on these principles.

The Dynomizer looked something like a radio, and Abrams claimed it could diagnose any known disease from a single drop of blood or alternatively the subject's handwriting. He performed diagnoses on dried blood samples sent to him on pieces of paper in envelopes through the mail. Apparently Abrams even claimed he could conduct medical practice over the telephone with his machines, and that he could determine personality characteristics.

The Dynomizer was big business; by 1918, courses in Spondylotherapy and ERA cost $200 (about the same purchasing power as $2,800 in 2008) and equipment was leased at about $200 with a monthly $5 charge thereafter. The lessee had to sign a contract stating the device would never be opened. Abrams explained that this would disrupt their delicate adjustment, but the rule also served to prevent the Abrams devices from being examined. He then widened his claims to treating the diagnosed diseases. Abrams came up with new and even more impressive gadgets, the "Oscilloclast" and the "Radioclast",which came with tables of frequencies that it was to be set to, to "attack" specific diseases. Clients were told cures required repeated treatments.




Albert Einstein (1879-1955), German-born Swiss and American, mathematical physicist, and known for Theory of Relativity, is considered the world's greatest scientist. His popular equation E=MC² has practical application in the development of nuclear energy. Einstein was also a lifelong pacifist who corresponded with famous figures like Freud and Tagore, among others.




The Strange Life of Nikola Tesla PDF


Tesla's Alternating Current is today lighting the globe.  Photo by NASA satellites.

Nikola Tesla symbolizes a unifying force and inspiration for all nations in the name of peace and science. He was a true visionary far ahead of his contemporaries in the field of scientific development.  New York State and many other states in the USA proclaimed July 10, Tesla’s birthday- Nikola Tesla Day.

(born July 9/10, 1856, Smiljan, Lika, Austria-Hungary [now in Croatia] — died Jan. 7, 1943, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Serbian U.S. inventor and researcher. He studied in Austria and Bohemia and worked in Paris before coming to the U.S. in 1884. He worked for Thomas Alva EdisonGeorge Westinghouse but preferred independent research. His inventions made possible the production and distribution of alternating-current electric power. He invented an induction coil that is still widely used in radio technology, the Tesla coil (1891); his system was used by Westinghouse to light the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. Tesla established an electric power station at Niagara Falls that delivered power to Buffalo, N.Y., by 1896. His research also included work on a carbon button lamp and on the power of electrical resonance. He discovered terrestrial stationary waves (1899 – 1900), proving that the Earth is a conductor. Due to lack of funds, many of his ideas remained only in his notebooks, which are still examined by enthusiasts for inventive clues. 

On his 75th birthday in 1931, the inventor appeared on the cover of Time Magazine. On this occasion, Tesla received congratulatory letters from more than 70 pioneers in science and engineering including Albert Einstein. These letters were mounted and presented to Tesla in the form of a testimonial volume.

 Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian inventor, proved the feasibility of radio communication. He sent and received his first radio signal in Italy in 1895. By 1899 he flashed the first wireless signal across the English Channel and two years later received the letter "S", telegraphed from England to Newfoundland. This was the first successful transatlantic radiotelegraph message in 1902.


In addition to Marconi, two of his contemporaries Nikola Tesla and Nathan Stufflefield took out patents for wireless radio transmitters. Nikola Tesla is now credited with being the first person to patent radio technology; the Supreme Court overturned Marconi's patent in 1943 in favor of Tesla.At the time of his death, Tesla had been working on the Teleforce weapon, or 'death ray,' that he had unsuccessfully marketed to the US War Department. It appears that Teleforce was related to his research into ball lightning and plasma, and was conceived as a particle beam weapon. The US government did not find a prototype of the device in the safe.

After the FBI was contacted by the War Department, his papers were declared to be top secret.





 Alexander Gavrilovich Gurwitsch (also Gurvich, Gurvitch) was a Ukrainian biologist and medical scientist who originated the morphogenetic field theory and discovered the biophoton.

Gurwitch was the son of a Jewish provincial lawyer: his family was artistic and intellectual and he decided to study medicine only after failing to gain a place studying painting. After research in the laboratory of Karl Wilhelm von Kupffer he began to specialise in embryology, publishing his first paper, on the biochemistry of gastrulation, in 1895. He graduated from Munich University in 1897, having studied under A.A. Boehm.

The Morphogenetic Field Theory

After graduation he worked in the histology laboratories of the universities of Strasbourg and Bern until 1907. At this time he met his future wife and life-long collaborator, the Russian-born medical trainee Lydia Felicine. His continuing interest, with the help of his relative Leonid Mandelstam, in the advances in physics at that time was to help in the formulation of his morphogenetic field theory, which Gurwitsch himself viewed throughout his life as no more than a suggestive hypothesis.

Serving in 1904 with the Russian army in the field he had much time to think, and he reasoned with himself that even a full understanding of every developmental process might not provide, or even necessarily lead to, a sense of understanding of ontogeny as a whole: a holistic, "top-down" model was needed to explain the ordered sequence of such individual processes. This conviction led him to adopt field theory as an embryological paradigm. His ideas had much in common with his contemporary Driesch and the two developed a mutual professional admiration.

During the next decade Gurwitsch contributed a series of landmark papers arguing that the orientation and division of cells was random at local level but was rendered coherent by an overall field which obeyed the regular inverse square law - an enterprise that required extensive statistical analysis. In 1907 he published his general treatise Atlas and Outline of Embryology of Vertebrates and of Man.

The Biophoton

After the 1917 revolution Gurwitsch fell upon hard times and accepted the chair of HistologyTaurida University, the chief seat of learning of the Crimean Peninsula, where he spent seven happy years. Here in 1923 he first observed biophotons or ultra-weak biological photon emissions; weak electromagnetic waves which were detected in the ultra-violet range of the spectrum. at

Gurwitsch named the phenomenon mitogenetic radiation since he believed that this light radiation allowed the morphogenetic field to control embryonic development. His published observations, which related that cell-proliferation of an onion was accelerated by directing these rays down a tube, brought him great attention. Some five hundred attempts at replication, however, produced overwhelmingly negative results, so that the idea was neglected for decades until it commanded some renewed interest in the later 20th century.However the furore, which may have sparked Wilhelm Reich's similar OrgonePaul Alfred Weiss in particular. experiments, brought Gurwitsch an international reputation that led to several European lecture-tours. His work influenced that of

Field theories of morphogenesis had a heyday in the 1920s but the success of geneticsemergent properties of the embryo but more modern self-organization theories (see, for example, Ilya Prigogine) and treatments of non-equilibrium thermodynamics in living systems would show the extent to which the vectors he described can be generated without the assumption of an overall field, so that the search for a physical field was abandoned in favour of more neutral concepts like the paradigm of Systems Biology. The early interest in physics which inspired Gurwitsch in the end tended to render his ideas untenable. confined such ideas to the background of biology. Gurwitsch had been ahead of his time in his interest in the

However, the tenacity of Anna Gurwitsch, together with the development of the photon counter multiplier, resulted in the confirmation of the phenomenon of biophotons in 1962. The observation was duplicated in a western laboratory by Quickenden and Que Hee in 1974. In the same year Dr. V.P.Kazmacheyev announced that his research team in Novosibirsk had detected intercellular communication by means of these rays. Fritz-Albert Popp claims they exhibit coherent patterns. These studies have drawn only fringe interest.

However, there has been a recent revival in field theories of life, albeit again at the fringes of science, particularly among those who seek to include an account of developmental psychobiology. The influence of Gurvitch's theory is particularly evident upon the work of the plant physiologist Dr. Rupert Sheldrake.

Raymond Rife



Royal Raymond Rife (May 16, 1888 – August 5, 1971) was an American inventor and early exponent of high-magnification time-lapse cine-micrography.He claimed that using a specially designed optical microscope, only five of which were ever constructed, he could observe a number of viruses which he thought were causal factors in several diseases, most notably cancer. Rife also claimed that a "beam ray" device could destroy or weaken the pathogens by inducing destructive resonances in their constituent chemicals. Rife's claims could not be independently replicated, and active scientific interest in the devices had dissipated by the 1950s.

Interest in Rife's claims was revived in some alternative medical circles by the book The Cancer Cure That Worked (1987), which claimed that Rife's work was successful. The book also claimed that his cure for cancer was suppressed by a conspiracy headed by the American Medical Association. After publication, a variety of devices bearing Rife's name were marketed as cures for diverse diseases such as cancer and AIDS.





Fritz-Albert Popp  is a German researcher in biophysics.

Biophotons as the most powerful basis of intra- and intercellular regulation.

Biophotons are single photons from living organisms, permanently emitted far away from thermal equilibrium and of extremely high coherence. They are the regulators of about 100 000 chemical reactions per cell and per second, responsible for the metabolism and fundamental regulatory activities of the body. There are indications that they are originating from the DNA, displaying fieldlike electromagnetic forces in some kind of resonance tuning with the boundary conditions. It turned out that they are of some practical significance. The measurement of biophotons of food indicates its energetic and negentropic quality in terms of light-storage capacity. There are correlations to health and disease of the human body. They show us the way how to use physiological laws - like the Weber-Fechner-law -, in order to get a finger print of regulatory capacities of the human body including self healing forces on the basis of psychological interactions.

Born in 1938 in Frankfurt. Diploma in Experimental Physics (1966, University Würzburg), Ršntgen-Prize of the University Würzburg, PH.D. in Theoretical Physics (1969, University Mainz), Habilitation in Biophysics and Medicine (1973, University Marburg), rediscoverer and first extensive physical analysis of "Biophotons", Nomination as Prof. (H2) by the Senate of the University Marburg, Lecturer at the University Marburg from 1973 to 1980. Head of a Research Group in the Pharmaceutical Industry in Worms from 1981 to 1983. Head of a Research Group in the Institute of Cell Biology (University Kaiserslautern) from 1983 to 1986. Head of a Research-Group at the Technology Center in Kaiserslautern, at the same time founder of a company "Biophotonics". Supervisor of about 30 diploma works and dissertations in Physics, Biology and Medicine, several nominations to Research Fellowship and Visiting Professor or Honorary Professor of Universities in Germany, China, USA and India. Invited Member of the New York Academy of Sciences, Founding Member of the International Consciousness Research Laboratoy (ICRL) at the Princeton University, President of the Worms Academy of Reformative Medicine (Germany), Honorary President of the Center of Documentation of Natural Healing (ZDN), Germany, Invited Foreign Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences (RANS), about 150 publications on basic questions of theoretical physics and biology, complementary medicine and biophotons. 



Reich, Wilhelm , 1897-1957, Austrian psychiatrist and biophysicist. For many years a chief associate at Freud's Psychoanalytic Polyclinic in Vienna, he later broke with Freud and the psychoanalytic movement. Forced to leave Nazi Germany, he resettled in New York City in 1939 to continue independent research in biophysics. He taught (1939-41) at the New School for Social Research, and in 1942 he founded the Orgone Institute. According to Reich's theories the universe is permeated by a primal, mass-free phenomenon that he called orgone energy; in the human organism the lack of repeated total discharge of this energy through natural sexual release is considered the genesis not only of all individual neurosis but also of irrational social movements and collective neurotic disorder. Reich invented the orgone box, a device that he claimed would restore energy but that was declared a fraud by the Food and Drug Administration. In 1956 he was tried for contempt of court and violation of the Food and Drug Act and sentenced to two years in a federal penitentiary, where he died.

Dr. Wilhelm Reich  Scientific Genius – or Medical Madman? By ALAN CANTWELL, Jr., M.D.

Who was Dr. Wilhelm Reich and why has history tried so hard to erase him? by Jerry Morton

Wilhelm Reich's 'Contact With Space'  By Alison Davidson

FURY ON EARTH, A Biography of Wilhelm Reich by Myron Sharaf Paperback,

Bibliography and listing of outside links from Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia

St. Martin's Press, NY (1983) Reviewed by Mary M. Leue




Dr. Alexander Lowen (December 23, 1910 – October 28, 2008) was an AmericanWilhelm Reich in the 1940s and early 1950s in New York, he developed Bioenergetic Analysis, a form of mind-body psychotherapy, with his then-colleague, John Pierrakos (February 8, 1921 – February 1, 2001). Lowen was the founder and former executive director of the International Institute for Bioenergetic Analysis in New York City. psychotherapist. A student of

Born in New York City, Lowen received a bachelor's degree in science and business from City College of New York and an LLB from Brooklyn Law School. His interest in the link between the mind and the body developed during this time. He enrolled in a class on character analysis with Wilhelm Reich. After training to be a therapist himself, Lowen moved to Switzerland to attend the University of Geneva, which awarded him an M.D. in June, 1951.

Lowen lived and practiced for the majority of his life in New Canaan, Connecticut. He suffered a stroke in July 2006.




Magnetic atom. and a brilliant theory of a largely unknown genius.

When the scientists first started studying the atom, they soon realized that when it was excited by the light atom, it would just disappear in the light. So they started to excite it with strong magnetic fields and strong electric tensions, causing the alteration of the atom itself. In fact, in Dr. Ighinas opinion, electrons, protons, neutrons, positrons etc. are products of an altered atom, so their laws are altered in respect to the normal atom.

Pier Luigi Ighina he was an italian scientist, that was born on June 23 in 1908, and died in January 2004 at the age of 95 years. His teacher was the well known Guglielmo Marconi .Ighina is known for many things he discovered along his life, and one of those things is the theory of magnetic atom and that he managed to break and approach clouds.Pier Luigi Ighina invented a lot of interesting devices that could help and heal everything





 (born Jan. 8, 1942, Oxford, Oxfordshire, Eng.) English theoretical physicist. He studied at the University of Oxford and later received his Ph.D. from Cambridge. He has worked primarily in the field of general relativity and particularly on the physics of black holes. In 1971 he suggested that numerous objects, formed after the big bang, each had as much as one billion tons of mass but the size of only a proton. These "mini black holes" are unique in being subject to both the laws of relativity, due to their immense mass and gravity, and the laws of quantum mechanics, due to their minute size. In 1974 he proposed that black holes "evaporate" by what is now known as Hawking radiation. His work greatly spurred efforts to delineate the properties of black holes. His work also showed the relationship of these properties to the laws of classical thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. Hawking's achievements, despite near-total paralysis from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, have earned him extraordinary honours. His books include the best-selling A Brief History of Time (1988).



Massimo Corbucci: born on 12 - December 1954 in Viterbo. Degree in Physics and in Medicine and Surgery, University "La Sapienza" of Rome.   Massimo Corbucci worked together with “GSI” in Darmstadt in order to detect the reason for number 114 trans-Uranic atom can’t be synthetized.“According to a NEW ATOMIC MODEL a STRUCTURAL LIMIT doesn’t allow the creation of atoms containig more than 112 electrons and protons.”That is tried from the “ORDINE DI RIEMPIMENTO DEI LIVELLI ATOMICI” (Copyright © Corbucci 1998) and “NUMERAZIONE BARIONICA” (© Corbucci99) show it.Those publications of nuclear physics have also allowed to discover “quantumechanic Vacuum”, which has been reported to C.E.R.N. in Geneva within the research about Higgs boson. This would have proved the impossibility to detect the Higgs PARTICLE by Hadron Collider (LHC). 

Thus, in 1998, Periodic Sistem elements maximun number has been determinated. They are 112: 50 within A GROUP, 62 within B GROUP. In December 1999 the Higgs was completely defined. It breaks the symmetry within the NUCLEUS between 46 barions with SPIN 1/2 and 57 with SPIN 3/2. The total number of types of barion is 103. IT ISN’T a detectable “PARTICLE”.

The NUCLEAR PHYSIC INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY called “God’s ParTicle”, institued by Corbucci under O.N.L.U.S aegis for Atomic Divulgation, provides the NEW PERIODIC TABLE OF 112 ELEMENTS and permits its reproduction.



Giuliana Conforto

Formerly an astrophysicist, Giuliana Conforto taught classical and quantum mechanics. Deeply involved with Giordano Bruno (1548-1600), she has applied the ancient ART of MEMORY, and so has become able to remember humans' origins, "see" within and listen to the "only Force, which links and gives life to infinite worlds" to which Bruno and manyother sages had sung praises. She's proposing an anthropic and astronomical revolution, centered on the main FORCE, Universal LIFE, that is changing the entire solar system and amplifying humans' perception. Itis the same FORCE that physicists have discovered and hidden under a false name: Electroweak. They cannot realize it is Universal LIFE, because the scientific method uses means, which cannot feel emotions and love, the key expressions of LIFE. Joining her inner work with facts, scientific discoveries that media do not diffuse, Giuliana Conforto has realized the huge deception of the official "knowledge", which ignores the meaning of LIFE and strongly links human emotions to fear. Neglecting the light side of the FORCE - the weak nuclear field - both sciences and religions pretend to ignore that infinite universes do exist and unveil the each human being's immortality. Renaming the scientific discoveries from a human perspective, she is proposing a new/ancient knowledge, Organic Physics, based on consciousness, each one's direct link to the TRUE SUN at the Earth's center.



Quantum Theory


1. Atoms and molecules can only exist in certain states characterized by definite amounts of energy. When an atom or molecule changes its state, it absorbs or emits an amount of energy (electromagnetic radiation) just sufficient to bring it to another state.
Electronic energy


  • ---form of energy that arises from the motion of e- about the nucleus, and from the interactions among the e- and between the e- and the nucleus.


  • --only certain values of electronic energy are allowed for an atom


  • --said to be quantized


  • --a change of electronic energy level (state) of an atom involves the absorption or emission of a definite amount, quantum, of energy


  • --lowest electronic energy state is called the ground state


  • --any state with energy greater than that of the ground state is an excited state

2. When atoms or molecules absorb or emit light in moving from one energy state to another, the wavelength of the light is related to the energies of the two states by the equation

Efinal - Einitial = hc/l


    h = Planck's constant

    c = speed of light


  • --ray of light can be considered to consist of photons


  • --each photon of wavelength has an energy of hc/l


  • --an atom or molecule can move from one electronic energy state to another by absorbing or emitting a photon of energy


  • --if it absorbs a photon of energy, hc/l , it moves from a lower to a higher energy state, and its energy increases by hc/l


      therefore: DE = Efinal - Einitial = Ehi - Elo = hc/l

3. The allowed energy states of atoms and molecules can be described by sets of numbers called quantum numbers


  • --quantum numbers are associated with individual electrons in an atom.


Relation between Energy difference, DE, and wavelength.


  • --wavelength is inversely related to the energy difference, DE
      a large DE---short wavelength........<400 nm--ultraviolet
      a small DE---long wavelength.........>700 nm--infrared


  • --e- moves from one energy state to another by absorbing or emitting radiation of a particular wavelength.


  • --by measuring the wavelength associated with e- transition, we can find DE of the two energy states involved

h = 6.626 x 10-34 J . s/ particle

c = 2.998 x 108 m/s

DE is in J/particle when wavelength is in meters

Ordinarily:   DE is in kJ/mol, and wavelength is in nm

1 mole = 6.02 x 1023 particles
1 kJ = 103 J
1 nm = 10-9 m


Relation between wavelength and frequency:
  • --frequency, represented by the Greek letter n (nu), is the number of wavecycles that pass a given point in a unit time ( 1 cycle per second is equal to 1 Hertz (Hz) )


  • ex. 108 cycles per second = 108 /s = 108 Hertz


  • --the velocity at which a wave moves can be found by multiplying the length of a wave, l, by the number of cycles passing a point in unit time, n


  • c = ln


  • n = c /l
  • frequency is inversely related to wavelength

For example:

Blue light, at a wavelength of 450 nm, has a higher frequency than red light with a wavelength of 650 nm.


  • blue.....frequency = c/450 nm = 6.66 x 1014/s


  • red......frequency = c/650 nm = 4.61 x 1014/s


  • --DE is directly proportional to the frequency of the light absorbed or emitted


  • --if DE is large, the light will have a high frequency


  • --if DE is small, the light will have a low frequency


The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen and the Bohr Model


1911--Niels Bohr, Danish physicist


  • -developed mathematical model for the behavior of an e- in the hydrogen atom
  • -based: on the Rutherford atom & quantum theory of Planck

spectroscope--instrument that breaks up light into its component colors


  • --continuous--contains all the colors (such as in white light)


  • --sodium vapor lamps, neon signs: the light given off looks different
      -spectrum not continuous
      -the light consists of several discrete colors which appear as lines of definite wavelength when seen in a spectroscope
      -each element has its own characteristic spectrum

Hydrogen most studied because it is the simplest with only 1 e-


  • --several series of lines representing electronic transitions
      -Lyman series (ultraviolet)
      -Balmer series (visible)
      -Paschen series (infrared)


  • --Bohr's ideas about H atom
      -central proton
      -single e- moves around the p+ in a circular orbit
      -force of attraction of the proton for the e- related to the circular motion of the e-
      -expressed energy of e- in terms of the radius of the orbit
      -combined classical Newtonian Laws of Motion and Coulomb's Law of Electrostatic Attraction with Quantum Theory


      angular momentum = mvr
      m = mass
      v = velocity (speed)
      r = radius of its orbit around the nucleus

      mvr = nh/2p
      h = Planck's constant
      n = a quantum number that can have any positive integral value (1,2,3...)


  • According to Bohr


      -angular momentum is quantized (i.e. cannot have just any value)
      -restricted to values for which "n" is a positive interger (2, h, and p are constants)
      -thus angular momentum can change only by discrete amounts (i.e. integral multiples of h/2p)



  • Also, Bohr found the allowed energies are restricted

    The energy of an energy level is given by the equation:


      E = -B/n2 ( where n = 1, 2, 3...) and    B = 2.179 x 10-18 J/particle

      E = -2.179 x 10-18J/particle/n2 = -1312kJ/mol/n2


3 Points to keep in mind:


  1. zero energy--the point at which the proton and e- are completely separated


      energy had to be absorbed to reach that point e- in all its energy states within the atom must have energy below zero, i.e. must be negative


  2. the normal H atom; the e- is in the ground state when n = 1. When the e- absorbs energy it moves to a higher excited state.


      n = 2 (1st excited state), n = 3 (2nd excited state, etc.)


  3. when an excited e- gives off energy in the form of light, it drops back to a lower energy state


      if e- returns to ground state (n = 1): Lyman series (n = 2 to n = 1, n 3 to n = 1, etc.)
      if e- returns to the first excited state : Balmer series ( n = 3, 4, ... to n = 2)
      if e- has a transition back to n = 3: Paschen series
    ionization energy of the H atom can be calculated from the Bohr model

    H(g) -------> H+(g) + e-

    DE = ionization energy

    DE = 0 - (-1312 kJ/mol) = 1312 kJ.mol

Quantum Mechanical Atom


  • --Bohr's model was great for the H atom (error of .1%); however, even with He error increased to 5%

Wave Nature of the Electron:

  • --deBroglie: suggested that particles might exhibit wave properties

    wavelength = h/mv

    m = mass
    v = speed

    2pr = nl

    mvr = h n/2p


  • --big question arises--how does one specify the position of a wave at a particular instant?


  • --can determine wavelength, energy, amplitude--but no way to tell just where the electron is because a wave extends over space


  • --Quantum mechanics was developed to describe the motion of small particles confined to very small portions of space.


  • --deals with the probability of finding a particle within a given region of space


  • --Schrodinger derived an equation from which one could calculate the amplitude (height) y of an electron wave at various points in space.


  • --Several expressions for y that will satisfy the equation. Each is assoicated with a set of quantum numbers.


  • --Becomes possible to determine the probability of finding a particle in a given region of space.


  • --y2 proportional to the probability of finding the particle at that point


  • --y2 proportional to the electron charge density at that point
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