University of Quantum and Integrative Medicine

Posted by Maddalena Frau on November 6, 2014 at 12:55 AM Comments comments (0)

Quantum University is institution of higher learning to provide degrees and certification programs in Quantum, alternative, energetic, natural, and integrative medicine based on the new emerging science of quantum physics.

Quantum University is a Degree Granting Institution established in 2000 that now serves over eight thousand students in forty one countries all over the world.


Quantum University was founded to meet the need to offer bachelor, master, doctorate and PhD degrees.


Students are offered health classes, certification courses, and degree program in an affordable IPad and/or online learning environment in order to receive the know-how and credentials necessary to become leaders in the natural health and wellness industries.

Quantum Medicine Update: The Scientific Validation of Quatum Medicine

Posted by Maddalena Frau on September 17, 2014 at 1:45 AM Comments comments (0)

Quantum medicine provides an energy-based medical paradigm that combines a wide spectrum of multidisciplinary health assessment protocols in an attempt to address the full complexities of chronic illness. Quantum medical practitioners view disease as a disruption, cessation, or distortion of the body's energetic anatomy along caused by a wide range of stress factors (nutrient deficiencies, toxicity, infections, etc.). Instead of suppressing the symptoms of this disharmony (pain, inflammation, etc.), these practitioners approach illness with the intent of eliminating the disharmony with bursts of energy or a specific resonance stimulations that correct the disharmony, eliminate stress or causative factors, and enhancing innate healing.

In the 1920s and 1930s Dr. Harold Saxon Burr of Yale University researched the energetic qualities of different forms of life. For example, Burr observed changes in the electrical field of trees to seasonal changes, sunlight and darkness, cycles of the moon, and sunspots. In humans, he noted that emotional stress affected the body's energy field (Transactions of the American Neurology Association 63, 1939). When observing hormonal changes in women, he was able to record a voltage change just before ovulation and a subsequent drop in voltage just as the egg is released (American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 44, 1942). The most fascinating of his discoveries pertains to the voltage changes that would allow Burr and his colleagues to define malignant tissue and predict when a woman would develop cancer of the cervix (Science, 105, 1947). An excellent review of his 43 years of research is summarized in his book Blueprint for Immortality: The Electric Patterns of Life. This breakthrough book reveals important scientific discoveries:


All living things - from men to mice, from trees to seeds - are formed and controlled by electrodynamic fields that Burr defined as L fields (Yale Journal of Biological Medicine, 16, 1944; Science, 103, 1946; Proceedings of National Academy of Science, 32, 1946).

L fields are the basic blueprints of all life (Yale Journal of Biological Medicine, 17, 1945; Federal Proceedings, 6, 1947; Medical Physiology, 1950).

L fields are informational and can reveal physical and mental conditions in order for doctors to diagnose illness before the usual symptoms develop (Yale Journal of Biological Medicine, 14, 1942; Yale Journal of Biological Medicine, 19, 1947; Yale Journal of Biological Medicine, 21, 1949).

Carlo Rubbia, a 1984 Nobel Laureate, made an astounding observation on the magnitude of biological information fields which he reports is far greater than biochemical or bimolecular information in the human body. Consequently, any medical field that examines only the physical body is only assessing a small and inconsequential part of human anatomy.


An American nenrologist, Albert Abrams, MD who taught pathology at Stanford University's medical school in California, made the following scientific observations (New Concepts in Diagnosis and Treatment, San Francisco, Philopolis Press, 1916):


Unknown resonances or waves were omitted from pathological tissue that can be used with great accuracy to locate an infection or pathology, and

Resonant frequencies or radiations from quinine eliminated the unknown resonances associated with malaria and mercurial salts stopped syphilis radiations (the same was true of other known antidotes).

In a series of 25 clinical trials, Dr. William Boyd confirmed Abrams' research and with 100% accuracy was able to identify chemicals and tissues without visual or any other clues except their resonances. In 1924, the Royal Society of Medicine investigated Boyd's claims and found them valid (Royal Society of Medicine, 1925). The committee was impressed with the new diagnostic capabilities of Boyd's methods.


Nobel Prize double-nominee, Robert O. Becker, MD reported that the electromagnetic resonance behaves in the human body in a similar fashion to magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI) and that the body's innate resonances could be used to heal and explain problematic health issues (Cross Currents: The Perils of Electropollution, The Promise of Electromedicine, Tarcher/Putman, 1990).


A controlled, research study on rats by the US Naval Research Center, Bethesda, Maryland (Biomagnetics, 7, 1986) documented that the magnetic resonance from lithium (not an oral dose) was able to subdue behavior and depress the central nervous system. This study is important because it documents significant biological effects from minute radiations similar to homeopathic medicines.


Another brilliant researcher, George Lakhovsky, published The Secret of Life in 1925 revealing that "every living cell is essentially dependent on its nucleus which is the center of oscillations and gives off radiations." His research has important health implications. Lakhovsky's book defines life and disease as a battle between healthy resonances and the unhealthy resonances of cells against microbes and other toxins. When we consider that the sun is the center of our solar system, and life could not exist without it giving off radiations that set up oscillations in living matter, it becomes obvious that energy principles work on the same universal laws, be they atoms, cells, or solar systems.


Famous US surgeon and founder of the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio, George Crile, M.D. supported Lakhovsky's finding with independent studies that were reported in his book The Phenomena of Life: A Radio-electric Interpretation, which was printed in 1936. He states, "electricity is the energy that drives the organism." He likened the cell to a battery and stated "It is clear that in the second half of life the electrical potential of the elderly patient as a whole or of this or that organ, has been very much reduced and that by so much, the margin of safety has been dangerously diminished." In the 1937 British Medical Journal, Sir Thomas Lewis defined an independent cutaneous nerve system of pathways that was not composed of nerve fibers.


Using electromyography (EMG), Dr Valerie Hunt at UCLA discovered that the body emits oscillations between the "noise" of normal muscle contractions. With sophisticated equipment, Hunt was able to monitor fluctuations in the body's electromagnetic energy levels (Progress Report: A Study of Structural Integration from Neuromuscular Energy Field and Emotional Approaches, UCLA, 1977).


Further documentation of the body's electromagnetic energies came from photographic techniques discovered by Semyon Kirlian in Russia. With the interaction of a high-frequency electric discharge and a photographic plate he captured the energetic imprints of living organisms on the film. Further research by scientists at the Kirov State University of Kazakhstan and by M.K. Gaikin, MD correlated these measurements with Traditional Chinese Medicine concepts of energy flow. I found some of the most impressive work with Kirilian photography in Peter Mendel's book Energy Emission Analysis. Mandel's work was important for the following reasons:


His findings were based on over 800,000 photographs (energy emission analysis or EEA), which documented the beginning and end points of classical acupuncture.

All irregularities of bodily functions were depicted on the photographs

He based his therapeutic intervention on either the positive or negative EEA macrographs.

Validation and Anatomical Documentation of Meridian Pathways


While some researchers have documented the electromagnetic resonances of life, other have documented what ancient Chinese medical wisdom has taught for thousands of years. The following are highlights of some of the research that validates the existence of the acupoints and meridian pathways:


During the 1960s Professor Kim Bong Hen studied the acupoints of animals. He injected radioactive p[32] (an isotope of phosphorus) into an acupoint and followed the uptake of the substance into surrounding tissue. With microautoradiography techniques, he discovered that the p32 followed the path of the classical acupuncture meridians (The Acupuncturist, 1, 1967).


In 1985, Pierre de Vernejoul at the University of Paris injected radioactive markers in acupuncture points. Using a gamma-camera imaging, he tracked the movement of the isotope. His findings indicated that the tracer followed the pathways of the classical meridian lines at the speed of 30 cm in 4-6 minutes. As a control, he also made random injections in the skin, vessels, and lymphatic channels documenting that there was no migration at these sites. (The Kirilian Aura, Doubleday, 1974; Bulletin of the Academy of National Medicine 169, 1985).


Using electronographic body scans, researchers documented meridian pathways (Electrographic Imaging in Medicine and Biology Neville Spearman Ltd.,1983).


In studies similar to Dr. Burr, Professor Kim found that the meridian ducts were formed within fifteen hours of conception in the embryonic chick before the rudimentary organs were formed (Design for Destiny Ballentine Books, 1974).


In another experiment, Professor Kim severed the liver meridian in a frog and observed the subsequent changes in the liver tissue. Shortly after severing the meridian, he discovered enlarged liver cells. Three days later he noted serious vascular degeneration throughout the entire liver.


Dr. William Tiller of Stanford University observed close to a twenty-fold drop in electrical resistance at the acupoints (Energy Field Observations, 1988).


Dr. Hiroshi Motoyama AMI Machine (short for Apparatus for Measuring the Functions of the Meridians and Corresponding Internal Organ) research on over 5,000 patients documented strong correlations between weaker meridians and underlying disease states in associated organ systems (Science and the Evolution of Consciousness, Autumn Press, 1978). Reinhold Voll, MD, who discovered electroacupuncture techniques, spent two decades studying acupuncture points and their related meridians. Voll's discovery that almost all Chinese acupuncture points could be detected by a change in skin resistance was of incredible importance to the birth of Quantum Medicine (American Acupuncture 8, 1980).


All the above studies support the teachings of Chinese medicine. In brief, doctors of Chinese medicine believe that illness is caused by energetic imbalances. Certainly Kim's research supports the concept that meridian changes precede physical organ dysfunction. Thus the integrity and balance of the acupuncture meridian system is crucial to detecting illness in the earliest possible stages before organ degeneration take place. Yet it is important to note that traditional Chinese theories were developed thousands of years ago when the planet was not as polluted and food was not genetically-engineered, toxic or depleted in nutrients. Hence, we may not be able to rely solely on old Chinese remedies and theories now and in the 21st century. Over the past decade, my research with the Yanick Quantum Energy Method[reg.] on thousands of natural products that were tested against stressed organs. glands and systems of the body, revealed that over 90% of supplements currently available were toxic or had poor energetic and biochemical bioactivity. This research was confirmed by in vitro screening studies of 196 natural products that found 191 toxic or ineffective with only 5 or 2.5% nontoxic (Journal of the American Nutraceutical Association. Vol 2:1, 25-41, Winter, 1996). For the best clinical results, quantum medical practitioners use non-toxic, clinically effective supplements that contain the correct resonances of healthy organs, glands and systems of the body and the correct nourishment to support and strengthen weak physiology This powerful synergism in supplement choices allows the body to discharge toxins, eliminate opportunistic infections, and correct nutritional deficiency states in the shortest time possible.


Assessing the Stress-related Origins of Disease


Most standard medical textbooks attribute 50 to 80% of all disease to stress-related origins. Emerging from Quantum Medicine and its attendant philosophy is the view that a wide spectrum of stressors can be assessed by observing subtle energy systems that govern physiology and give rise to chronic disease. Causative agents that are not always detectable at the biochemical level, commonly manifest an attendant perturbation at the energetic level. Foundational research that supports the basis of Quantum Medicine has provided a clear mandate for the necessity of considering the variables of energetic anatomy in attempting to comprehend complex multisystem disease. From such research it is evident that the energetic context of health disorders, needs to be considered with the traditional biochemical model and that neither can stand alone. For example, using the meridian system as a way to determine biochemical stressors and organ responses to stress factors can synchronize enzymes and create an amplified crystalline resonant field that propels nutrients deep within the cells of the body, Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients. April. 2000. thereby improving nutrient uptake. As an added bonus, matching the correct resonant frequencies to meridian representations of organs and systems of the body enhances electron transfer functions and stabilizes molecular defenses, thereby reducing oxidative stress. The next column will discuss lymph stasis, lymphedema, and lymphotoxicosis as common underlying causes of obesity, thyroid insufficiency, and chronic pain syndromes and their assessment via regulation thermography and the best sequence of testing to determine one's lymphatic status via the meridian pathways.

By Paul, Jr. Yanick


How Women Can Prevent or Even Heal Breast Cancer, Explore and Find Love, and Live Healthily Ever After

Posted by Maddalena Frau on January 17, 2014 at 1:20 AM Comments comments (0)

By Amit Goswami, Ph. D.

The actress Angelina Jolie, by her radical mastectomy because of a high probability for contracting breast cancer, has increased our awareness of the suffering that this tragic disease brings to women worldwide.  The truth is, every year roughly 3 million people contract this disease, and thousands die.

Angelina’s case was special because her situation was hereditary.  But many cases of breast cancer are not hereditary,  (due to any genetic abnormality), and the question arises, could it be that in these cases the physical symptoms—cancerous growths—are not due to any physical cause at all?  If there is a nonphysical cause, and we can understand it, can we treat the disease at the root and heal it?  Furthermore, if we can understand the cause of these cases of cancer, could we prevent the cancer by eliminating or minimizing the cause in the first place?

Conventional medicine practitioners are not very friendly to such questions because of their “everything is matter” and “genetic abnormalities cause most disease” philosophy.

Quantum physics leads us to a different philosophy: Consciousness is the ground of being in which there are four worlds of quantum possibilities: material, vital, mental, and archetypal (which I call supramental).  Choice by consciousness from material possibilities gives us material objects of sensing.  When consciousness chooses from the possibility-movements of the vital world, we experience vital energy movements of feeling.  Choice from the mental world (mind) gives us meaningful objects of thought.  And choice from the supramental gives us the archetypal objects of intuition such as love.

The individual manifest worlds of our experience do not interact directly but only through the intermediary of consciousness with nonlocal, signnalless communication (quantum nonlocality).

This scientific validation of our subtle experiences of feeling, thinking, and intuition, opens the door for the validation of alternative practices of medicine that postulate an important disease-causing role to imbalances of the subtle movements of our experience. (Read my book The Quantum Doctor.)  For example, vital body medicine practices such as Traditional Chinese Medicine [TCM], the Indian Ayurveda, and homeopathy claim that many diseases are caused by imbalances or blocks of vital energy movements associated with our organs and their interactions.  Mind-body medicine practices hold that imbalances and blocks in our processing of mental meaning cause some of our diseases.  And so forth.

TCM and What Quantum Physics and Avant-garde Biology Add to TCM Model of Breast Cancer Treatment and Prevention

Now back to breast cancer.  According to TCM, breast cancer is caused by imbalances in the movement of vital energy in the breasts and in the related organs of importance to healthy breast functioning.  Also of importance in TCM is the movement of vital energy in the channels called meridians that connect interacting organs.

In the early days of medicine, when Traditional Chinese medicine was formulated, very little was known about the vital body.  Boldly, the Chinese thinkers used a modified version of the five-elements theory of matter and space (the classification in terms of earth, water, air, fire, and vacuum or empty space) to get a grip.  But being good empiricists, they also took into account what they empirically knew about the organs.  They discovered that organs affect organs in two ways, either in a supportive role or in a controlling role.  Accordingly, they renamed the corresponding vital energy elements as: earth, water, wood, fire, and metal.  Earth nourishes metal in a supporting role, but metal cuts wood in a controlling role.

In this way, TCM practitioners would say that the female breasts, liver, and stomach are connected by support and control.  Therefore, they emphasize the importance of keeping the flow of vital energy in these organs and between these organs unblocked and balanced.  This means we pay special attention to the flow of vital energy in their channels of communication, namely, the liver meridian and the stomach meridian.  Balance in the conceptualization of TCM means a balance between the complementary aspects—yin and yang—of vital energy (chi).

TCM is especially effective as a preventive medicine.  If we keep the vital energy balanced and unblocked in the way described above, we can prevent cancer, is their point.  Empirical data supports their view.

Modern science improves the theory quite a bit.  I have already spoken of how quantum physics and the concept of psycho-physical parallelism make the concept of vital energy scientific.  Balance in this approach means a balance between particle and wave modality of the flow of vital energy, a balance of what is and what is possible, in other words, a balance between conditioning and creativity in the mode of movement.

Now add new insights in the biological theory of form-making, morphogenesis.  The biologist Rupert Sheldrake noted that morphogenesis (how a one-celled embryo, through cell division that creates identical replicas, can grow all the different organs of the body with differentiated functions depending on where in the body the organ lies) gives rise to a paradoxical question—how does the cell know where it is in the body?  Accordingly, there must be new nonlocal, and therefore nonphysical, organizing principles, call them morphogenetic fields, that are instrumental in biological cell-differentiation and form-making.

When we combine the lesson of quantum psychophysical parallelism with Sheldrake’s morphogenetic fields, we can see clearly that the morphogenetic fields are the blueprints of biological form that consciousness uses to make organs.  Each organ then has a “correlated” (through consciousness and quantum nonlocality) morphogenetic blueprint in the vital body.  The conglomerate of these morphogenetic fields associated with all our organs is what we call the vital body.

As the physical body grows through childhood and early adulthood, the movements of these associated morphogenetic fields become conditioned to act in a certain predictable way.  These are yin movements of vital energy.  But the cells die and are replaced from food molecules, disease comes from various sources, environmental changes with seasons and places; in this way, the movements of the morphogenetic fields has to have creative dynamism, a balance of the yang component of chi.

The most serious situation, of course, is created when certain movements of vital energy are entirely blocked; in quantum parlance, these movements are never actualized or collapsed.  We can see, that such blocks of vital energy movement that prevent the functioning of organs would have grave disease-producing consequences.

Now add another relatively new insight of modern biology and medicine, the discovery of the immune system that keeps the body healthy by killing off intruders.   Naturally, modern medicine recognizes the importance of keeping the immune system functioning normally.  Because of occasional mistakes in cell division mechanism, the body is always creating abnormal cells that the immune system kills off routinely as intruders.  But if the immune system does not function properly, these abnormal cells can grow and become malignant causing cancer.

However, modern medicine has only a few legitimate scientific mechanisms for immune system malfunctioning.  The principal one is genetic; if there is a defect in the gene structure, the immune system will go awry with high probability.  This was suspected to be the case with actress Angelina Jolie.

Another mechanism sometimes suggested is the action of a bacteria or a virus that trips off the immune system.  However, there is no concrete case of this happening.  Recently, a red flag was raised in proposing that oral sex can lead to throat cancer through bacterial infection.  The actor Michael Douglas made himself the butt of many jokes when he claimed that his throat cancer was caused by HPV contracted through cunnilingus.

Vital energy medicine can do better.  Blocking of the vital energies associated with the immune system is a likely mechanism for immune system malfunctioning.  What can produce a vital energy block of this kind.

What feelings are associated with immune system functioning?  The job of the immune system in the form of the thymus gland –- its geographical location roughly the same as the female breasts — is to distinguish between “me and not me”. When we fall in love with someone, the movement of the morphogenetic field associated with our immune system is temporarily suspended, suspending immune system functioning as well.  This is experienced as an intense yearning for physical union, a part of all episodes of romantic love.  When the union is achieved, movement of the morphogenetic field (vital energy) resumes, and the immune system functioning returns to normal.

In this way, certain situations in women’s lives can lead to prolonged suspension of immune system functioning, such as a woman in grief from bereavement.  This then can produce breast cancer.

In Eastern psychology, the presence of certain feeling centers along the spine was discovered long ago.  These points are called chakra points.  Notice that the location of the thymus gland is roughly in the same area as the heart.  The corresponding chakra point where we feel romantic love is called the heart chakra.  There are seven such major chakra points.

The identification of unfulfilled romantic love as the source of immune system malfunctioning gives us an extra handle.  It brings to the fore the role of the mind in causing vital energy blocks.  To starve the heart chakra of romantic love until fulfillment is achieved with only the desired partner is often a mental decision that suppresses the feeling of love towards others.  Thus, certain types of cancer, breast cancer in particular, can be recognized as a mind-body disease.

Again, from the perspective of mind-body disease, prevention is the best policy to deal with the problem.  In the olden days, people were encouraged to grieve more than they naturally would.  Now with a cancer-prone environment and an exponential increase of mental stress, we should do the opposite and discourage prolonged mourning.

Is there any healing along these lines once one has contracted breast cancer?  The best results are achieved if we try changing the context of the mental thought that contributes to the negative emotion of grief.

The physician Deepak Chopra discovered the phenomenon of quantum healing as an explanation of many cases of spontaneous healing without medical intervention.  Quantum healing occurs as a discontinuous transition of the mind to the archetypal world to discover a new context for mental thinking that is causing the vital energy block.  Such quantum leaps are part of the creative process.  In the case of mind-caused breast cancer, the quantum leap will let you love again.

The quantum leaps of quantum healing of cancer bring about the normal functioning of the immune system back with such fury that overnight all the cancerous mass is destroyed.

Can we do even better, life-long prevention, once we have rediscovered love?  In TCM, it is recognized that the vital blueprints of the three organs of the lung, liver, and stomach form a special trio of circular hierarchy: the liver blueprint controls the stomach; the stomach blueprint does not control the liver back directly; instead, the stomach blueprint supports the lung blueprint, and the lung blueprint controls the liver blueprint.  Thus the vital blueprints of the three organs form a causal circularity, a situation called tangled hierarchy which produces self-identity.  What this means is that when consciousness collapses the possibility waves of these organs and their associated blueprints (morphogenetic fields), it identifies with the trio as a whole giving the system apparent autonomy.  There is no evidence for any autonomous functioning of the lung, but there is such evidence for the immune system. Clearly, ancient Chinese thought has validity if we substitute immune system for the lung.  In other words, the immune system, the liver, and the stomach form one autonomous system of identification for consciousness.  And it is important to keep each member of the trio and their vital connections healthy to ensure proper immune system functioning.

So the quantum recipe for forever healthy living: discover love and expand your center of functioning from your neocortex to include the heart (immune system) center also.  As John Lennon wrote, “all you need is love”.

Alpha wave

Posted by Maddalena Frau on December 27, 2013 at 12:05 AM Comments comments (0)

Alpha waves are electromagnetic oscillations in the frequency arising from synchronous and coherent (in phase / constructive) electrical activity of large groups of neurons in the human brain.

EEG Biofeedback  (often called neurotherapy or neurofeedback) is a learning strategy that enables persons to alter their brain waves by getting a feedback of their present state.

For more information about the topic Alpha wave, read the full article at Wikipedia.org, or see the following related articles:

Electroencephalography is the neurophysiologic measurement of the electrical activity of the brain by recording from electrodes placed on the scalp or, in special cases, on the cortex.

Functional neuroimaging is the use of neuroimaging technology to measure an aspect of brain function, often with a view to understanding the relationship between activity in certain brain areas and specific mental functions.

Rapid eye movement (REM) is the stage of sleep characterized by rapid saccadic movements of the eyes.

A mirror neuron is a neuron which fires both when an animal performs an action and when the animal observes the same action performed by another (especially conspecific) animal.

Sensory neurons are nerve cells within the nervous system responsible for converting external stimuli from the organism's environment into internal electrical impulses.

Phantom limb is a phantom sensation in amputated or missing limbs. A phantom sensation is a feeling that a missing limb is still attached to the body

In vertebrates, motor neurons (also called motoneurons) are efferent neurons that originate in the spinal cord and synapse with muscle fibers to facilitate muscle contraction and with muscle spindles to modify proprioceptive sensitivity.

Narcolepsy is a neurological condition most characterized by Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS), episodes of sleep and disorder of REM or rapid eye movement sleep.

The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing. The sound waves enter the ear canal, a simple tube (but one which amplifies sounds that are between 3 and 12 kHz).

Seizures are temporary abnormal electro-physiologic phenomena of the brain, resulting in abnormal synchronization of electrical neuronal activity.

Note: This page refers to an article that is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the article Seizure at Wikipedia.org. See the Wikipedia copyright page for more details.

Editor's Note: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

Quantum biology: Do weird physics effects abound in nature?

Posted by Maddalena Frau on October 14, 2013 at 9:50 AM Comments comments (0)

Perfume chemist The multi-billion-dollar fragrance industry might just benefit from the ideas in quantum biology

Disappearing in one place and reappearing in another. Being in two places at once. Communicating information seemingly faster than the speed of light.

This kind of weird behaviour is commonplace in dark, still laboratories studying the branch of physics called quantum mechanics, but what might it have to do with fresh flowers, migrating birds, and the smell of rotten eggs?

Welcome to the frontier of what is called quantum biology.

It is still a tentative, even speculative discipline, but what scientists are learning from it might just spark revolutions in the development of new drugs, computers and perfumes - or even help in the fight against cancer.

Until recently, the delicate states of matter predicted by quantum mechanics have only been accessed with the most careful experiments: isolated particles at blisteringly low temperatures or pressures approaching that of deep space.

The idea that biology - impossibly warm, wet and messy to your average physicist - should play host to these states was almost heretical.

But a few strands of evidence were bringing the idea into the mainstream, said Luca Turin of the Fleming Institute in Greece.

"There are definitely three areas that have turned out to be manifestly quantum," Dr Turin told the BBC. "These three things... have dispelled the idea that quantum mechanics had nothing to say about biology."

SEM of chloroplast
Deep within plants' energy-harvesting machinery lie distinctly quantum tricks

The most established of the three is photosynthesis - the staggeringly efficient process by which plants and some bacteria build the molecules they need, using energy from sunlight. It seems to use what is called "superposition" - being seemingly in more than one place at one time.

Watch the process closely enough and it appears there are little packets of energy simultaneously "trying" all of the possible paths to get where they need to go, and then settling on the most efficient.

"Biology seems to have been able to use these subtle effects in a warm, wet environment and still maintain the [superposition]. How it does that we don't understand," Richard Cogdell of the University of Glasgow told the BBC.

But the surprise may not stop at plants - there are good hints that the trickery is present in animals, too: the navigational feats of birds that cross countries, continents or even fly pole to pole present a compelling behavioural case.

Experiments show that European robins only oriented themselves for migration under certain colours of light, and that very weak radio waves could completely mix up their sense of direction. Neither should affect the standard compass that biologists once believed birds had within their cells.

What makes more sense is the quantum effect of entanglement. Under quantum rules, no matter how far apart an "entangled" pair of particles gets, each seems to "know" what the other is up to - they can even seem to pass information to one another faster than the speed of light.


The weird world of quantum mechanics

Albert Einstein

Quantum mechanics starts with the simple idea that energy does not come in just any amount; it comes in discrete chunks, called quanta. But deeper into the theory, some truly surprising - and useful - effects crop up

  • Super'chooses' one particular state
  • Entanglement: Two particles can become entangled so that their properties depend on each other - no matter how far apart they get. A measurement of one seems to affect the measurement of the other instantaneously - an idea even Einstein called "spooky"
  • Tunnelling: A particle can break through an energy barrier, seeming to disappear on one side of it and reappear on the other. Lots of modern electronics and imaging depends on this effect
  • How Einstein changed our ideas about the entire Universe

Experiments suggest this is going on within single molecules in birds' eyes, and John Morton of University College London explained that the way birds sense it could be stranger still.

"You could think about that as... a kind of 'heads-up display' like what pilots have: an image of the magnetic field... imprinted on top of the image that they see around them," he said.

The idea continues to be somewhat controversial - as is the one that your nose might be doing a bit of quantum biology.

Most smell researchers think the way that we smell has to do only with the shapes of odour molecules matching those of receptors in our noses.

But Dr Turin believes that the way smell molecules wiggle and vibrate is responsible - thanks to the quantum effect called tunnelling.

The idea holds that electrons in the receptors in our noses disappear on one side of a smell molecule and reappear on the other, leaving a little bit of energy behind in the process.

A paper published in Plos One this week shows that people can tell the difference between two molecules of identical shape but with different vibrations, suggesting that shape is not the only thing at work.

What intrigues all these researchers is how much more quantum trickery may be out there in nature.

"Are these three fields the tip of the iceberg, or is there actually no iceberg underneath?" asked Dr Turin. "We just don't know. And we won't know until we go and look."

'Hugely important'

That question has ignited a global push. In 2012, the European Science Foundation launched its Farquest programme, aiming to map out a pan-European quantum research structure in which quantum biology plays a big role.

And the US defence research agency, Darpa, has been running a nationwide quantum biology network since 2010. Departments dedicated to the topic are springing up in countries ranging from Germany to India.

European robin
Do European robins use the molecular equivalent of a pilot's heads-up display?

A better understanding of smell could make the hit-and-miss business of making new fragrances more directed, and learning from nature's tricks could help with developing next-generation quantum computers.

But what the next wave of quantum biologists finds could be truly profound.

Simon Gane, a researcher at the Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital and lead author of the Plos One paper, said that the tiny receptors in our noses are what are called G-protein coupled receptors.

"They're a sub-family of the receptors we have on all cells in our body - they're the targets of most drug development," he explained.

"What if - and this is a very big if - there's a major form of receptor-drug interaction that we're just not noticing because we're not looking for a quantum effect? That would have profound implications for drug development, design and discovery."

Jim Al-Khalili of the University of Surrey is investigating whether tunnelling occurs during mutations to our DNA - a question that may be relevant to the evolution of life itself, or cancer research.

He told the BBC: "If quantum tunnelling is an important mechanism in mutations, is quantum mechanics going to somehow answer some of the questions about how a cell becomes cancerous?

"And suddenly you think, 'Wow!' Quantum mechanics is not just a crazy side issue or a fringe field where some people are looking at some cranky ideas. If it really might help answer some of the very big questions in science, then it's hugely important."

By Jason Palmer and Alex Mansfield

BBC News and BBC Radio Science Unit

Quantum Theory

Posted by Maddalena Frau on October 14, 2013 at 9:45 AM Comments comments (0)

Quantum Theory (or Quantum Mechanics or Quantum Physics - the terms are interchangeable) is an extension of physics in order to cover the behaviour of microscopic objects. Physics as it was before Quantum Theory is called Classical Physics.

On some versions Quantum Theory includes Classical Physics as a special case. From the start the theory was subject to controversy and developed into a wealth of different forms, mostly agreeing at the level of practical calculation but disagreeing wildly as to the interpretation.

The question "what is quantum theory" is therefore a difficult one.

Both Classical and Quantum Physics describe how the observable properties of a system change with time.

The "system" (which here means "thing") can be anything from an atom to the universe; its properties are quantities like position, momentum, energy, the internal arrangements of its parts and so on.

In Classical Physics there is a set of properties for any given system (namely the positions and velocities of all its parts) which completely determines its time-development and the properties at any later time.

In Quantum Physics there is no such complete set of properties. Instead

1. At any given time there are many different possible sets of properties, any one of which sets can be observed; but it is not possible to observe all the properties simultaneously. For instance, position and velocity cannot be observed simultaneously; the first gives a particle-picture the second a wave-picture.

2. Any properties at a later time cannot (except in special circumstances) be determined by observing properties at an earlier time. Only their probabilities are fixed by the earlier observation.

The term observed means different things in different versions: e.g. "manifested," "recorded by a macroscopic instrument," "brought to (human?) consciousness" and so on. The last possibility links quantum theory with theories of mind. At any given time there is a well defined specification of the probability of observing any given property. This collection of probabilities is fixed by (or in some versions is identical with) the quantum state, but this state is not itself observable. Interpretations differ as to whether the state is real or a mathematical abstraction, with profound consequences for the whole notion of reality in physics.

The earliest interpretations, dating from workers in Copenhagen, used a two-tier world: a small system obeying non-Classical Physics and an observing laboratory obeying Classical Physics. The many pre-1965 theories tend to call themselves "The Copenhagen Interpretation." Later interpretations tried to achieve a more unified view. This history introduced a succession of alternative structures: the collapse of the state, many worlds, environmental diffusion and so on. These have almost all been superseded.

Systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom (in particular, fields such as the electromagnetic field) are described by quantum field theory whose states can all be constructed out of a special state of the field in question called the vacuum for that field. The vacuum has zero energy (except in Dirac's theory which enjoyed brief popularity).

Prof. Chris Clarke is visiting Professor in the Faculty of Mathematical Studies, University of Southampton. He is the author of 'Reality Through the Looking Glass' (1995).

Bovis Biometer

Posted by Maddalena Frau on June 14, 2013 at 12:35 AM Comments comments (0)

Bovis Biometer

Bovis scale

The Bovis scale, named after French radiesthesist André Bovis (1871–1947; also referred to as either Antoine or Alfred by some authors), is a concept used by dowsers and adherents of geomancy to quantify the strength of a postulated "cosmo-telluric energy" inherent in a location.

The attribution to Bovis is due to his grandson, the self-designated "geobiologist" Jacques Bovis. The concept was further developed by one André Simoneton (1949), who introduced the term "radio-vitality" (radiovitalité;). Simoneton's scale was in turn developed into a "modern Bovis scale" by Swiss "geobiologist" and former Vaud cantonal parliament member Blanche Merz (1919–2002), who founded an Institut de recherches en géobiologie at Chardonne in 1979 and whose self-published books appeared from the 1980s. Merz' books enjoyed some popularity in French-speaking Switzerland and were reprinted by commercial publishers in the later 1980s and 1990s, in translation also reaching German-speaking Europe. Merz' 1983 Hauts-Lieux Cosmo-Télluriques in 1987 was also published in English translation.

The unit of the Bovis scale has no known definition and isn't in any way based on physics. The "measurement" consists of the dowser walking around the place with an object (like a pendulum, dubbed "biometer") and declaring the Bovis number. A number of 6,500 is considered "neutral", lower figures affect human "energies" negatively, higher numbers positively. Numbers above 10,000 are in the "ethereal range", considered Places of power.


Blanche Merz,Hauts-Lieux Cosmo-Télluriques (1983)
Blanche Merz, Points of Cosmic Energy, The C.W. Daniel Company Ltd (1987), ISBN 0852071949.
Simoneton, André: Radiations des aliments, ondes humaines et sante, Paris 1949
Simoneton, André: Radiovitalite des des aliements - hypotheses sur la vie et la sante (1949)












Procédé et dispositifs de production d'ondes magnétiques pour toutes applicatioInventor:  BOVIS JUSTIN ANTOINE ALFRED
EC:   A61N2/00     IPC:   A61N2/00; A61N2/00

Procédé et dispositif pour l'obtention de radiations radio-actives déterminées et leurs utilisations

Procédé et dispositifs pour déterminer le degré de fraîcheur des ceufs et leur valeur au point de vue incubation









Images of Bovis Biometers

An instrument invented by M. Bovis in France to give measurements on a scale of 1 to 100 in regard to dowsing responses. He first used it to determine the quality of cheese and casks of wine. Now it is mainly used in radiesthesia and other methods of healing. The biometer consists of a wood baseboard with a 100 cm rule which can be slid into the base. At the 0 end a small cup is fitted to hold a witness, if required. The pendulum is held towards the right end of the base and the rule is slid out or in until a positive response is observed by the dowser. The reading on the rule is taken as the value or rate. There are many variations of the biometer.



Color --

Main --

Physical --

Etheric --

Astral --

Mental --

Causative --

Spirit --








The Bovis Biometer -- A Detecting Method

The “vibrational” level of a place, of an object, of a person or of a situation can be measured with many different instruments, I personally use the L-rods with a graduated scale and the Bovis biometer.

In the attachment A you can observe the graduated scale that I use to measure the quantity of subtle energy, attachment B is a picture of the original Bovis biometer, and picture C shows its representation on the graduated scale, used to measure the various “radiances” or subtle energies types with the L-rods.

On a physical ground a healthy person will have a frequency of about 6500 Bovis units (or Angrstrom); this is a wave length colored in orange that is present in the original Bovis biometer, close to the infrared radiation. On the contrary the frequency of a very ill person can go down to less than 4000 units. The vibrational rate of an environment will immediately give an indication about the energetic quality of that place.

In a religious building we can find values of 8000/9000 Bovis units. This values can reach a score of 13,000/19,000 or even more, in some particularly privileged religious sites.? ?A Hartmann knot and an underground water stream, that emit negative frequencies usually have a vibration of about 3,000 Bovis units.

Every contact or closeness to levels below 6500 bovis units will be negative for man; this rule is true also for food. What really matters is not the kind of material but the vitality that it contains. The real organic products and all natural materials have a great level of energy and therefore a high vibrational quality.

Pork meat, even if very tasty, has a very low vibrational energy, from 2,000 to 4,500 Bovis units, like many other refined foods like white pasta or white sugar. This difference of values is determined by the way pigs are raised, what they eat, where they live etc... If a pig is raised outside and well fed the vibration of its meat will be higher than that of a pig which is raised inside and badly fed. This is true for all kinds of meat, eggs and of course for fruit and vegetables, if they are organic they will have a higher vibrational rate.

Another example of low vibration is that of cellular phones and computers which vibrate at about 2,000/3,000 Bovis units and it’s necessary to be very careful while using these equipments, so widely used and so negative for our health.


The sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)

Posted by Maddalena Frau on May 11, 2013 at 4:25 AM Comments comments (0)

Nelumbo nucifera, known by a number of names including Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, or simply lotus, is one of two species of aquatic plant in the family Nelumbonaceae.

The Linnaean binomial Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn.) is the currently recognized name for this species, which has been classified under the former names, Nelumbium speciosum (Willd.) and Nymphaea nelumbo, among others. Names other than Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn.) are obsolete synonyms and should not be used in current works.

This plant is an aquatic perennial. Under favorable circumstances its seeds may remain viable for many years, with the oldest recorded lotus germination being from that of seeds 1,300 years old recovered from a dry lakebed in northeastern China.

A common misconception is referring to the lotus as a water lily (Nymphaea), an entirely different plant, as can be seen in the center of the flowers, which lack the structure that goes on to form the distinctive circular seed pod in the Nelumbo nucifera.

Native to Tropical Asian nations and Queensland, Australia, it is commonly cultivated in water gardens. It is also the national flower of India and Vietnam.

The distinctive dried seed heads, which resemble the spouts of watering cans, are widely sold throughout the world for decorative purposes and for dried flower arranging.

The flowers, seeds, young leaves, and "roots" (rhizomes) are all edible.

In Asia, the petals are sometimes used for garnish, while the large leaves are used as a wrap for food, not frequently eaten (for example, as a wrapper for zongzi).

In Korea, the leaves and petals are used as a tisane. Yeonkkotcha (연꽃차) is made with dried petals of white lotus and yeonipcha (연잎차) is made with the leaves. Young lotus stems are used as a salad ingredient in Vietnamese cuisine.

The rhizome (called ǒu () in pinyin Chinese, ngau in Cantonese, kamal kakri in Hindi, renkon (レンコン, 蓮根 in Japanese), yeongeun (연근 in Korean) is used as a vegetable in soups, deep-fried, stir-fried, and braised dishes and the roots are also used in traditional Asian herbal medicine.

Petals, leaves, and rhizome can also all be eaten raw, but there is a risk of parasite transmission (e.g., Fasciolopsis buski): it is therefore recommended that they be cooked before eating.

Lotus rootlets are often pickled with rice vinegar, sugar, chili and/or garlic. It has a crunchy texture with sweet-tangy flavours.

In Asian cuisine, it is popular with salad, prawns, sesame oil and/or coriander leaves. Lotus roots have been found to be rich in dietary fiber, vitamin C, potassium, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, phosphorus, copper, and manganese, while very low in saturated fat.

The stamens can be dried and made into a fragrant herbal tea called liánhuā cha (蓮花) in Chinese, or (particularly in Vietnam) used to impart a scent to tea leaves.

This Vietnamese lotus tea is called trà sen, chè sen, or chè ướp sen. The lotus seeds or nuts (called liánzĭ, 蓮子; or xiān liánzĭ, 鲜莲子, in Chinese) are quite versatile, and can be eaten raw or dried and popped like popcorn, phool makhana.

They can also be boiled until soft and made into a paste, or boiled with dried longans and rock sugar to make a tong sui (sweet soup).

Combined with sugar, lotus seed paste becomes one of the most common ingredients used in pastries such as mooncakes, daifuku, and rice flour pudding.

In Vietnam, the bitter tasting germs of the lotus seeds are also made into a tisane (trà tim sen).

A unique fabric from the lotus plant fibers is produced only at Inle lake, Union of Myanmar and is used for weaving special robes for Buddha images called kya thingahn (lotus robe).

Cultural significance

From ancient times the lotus has been a divine symbol in Asian traditions representing the virtues of sexual purity and non-attachment.

Hindus revere it with the divinities Vishnu and Lakshmi often portrayed on a pink lotus in iconography. In the representation of Vishnu as Padmanabha (Lotus navel), a lotus issues from his navel with Brahma on it. Goddess Sarasvati is portrayed on a white-colored lotus.

Often used as an example of divine beauty, Vishnu is often described as the 'Lotus-Eyed One'. Its unfolding petals suggest the expansion of the soul. The growth of its pure beauty from the mud of its origin holds a benign spiritual promise. In Hindu iconography, other deities, like Ganga and Ganesha are often depicted with lotus flowers as their seats.

The lotus plant is cited extensively within Puranic and Vedic literature, for example:

One who performs his duty without attachment, surrendering the results unto the Supreme Lord, is unaffected by sinful action, as the lotus is untouched by water.
—Bhagavad Gita 5.10:

In Chinese culture Confucian scholar Zhou Dunyi wrote:

I love the lotus because while growing from mud, it is unstained.

Chinese: 予独爱莲之出淤泥而不染。

Most deities of Asian religions are depicted as seated on a lotus flower.

In Buddhist symbolism, the lotus represents purity of the body, speech, and mind as if floating above the muddy waters of attachment and desire.

According to legend, Gautama Buddha was born with the ability to walk, and lotus flowers bloomed everywhere he stepped.

In the classical written and oral literature of many Asian cultures the lotus is present in figurative form, representing elegance, beauty, perfection, purity and grace, being often used in poems and songs as an allegory for ideal feminine attributes. In Sanskrit the word lotus (padma पद्म) has many synonyms.

Since the lotus thrives in water, ja (denoting birth) is added to synonyms of water to derive some synonyms for the lotus, like ambuja (ambu= water + ja=born of), neeraj (neera=water + ja= born of), pankaj, pankaja, kamal, kamala, kunala, aravind, arvind, nalin,nalini and saroja and names derived from the lotus, like padmavati (possessing lotuses) or padmini (full of lotuses).

These names and derived versions are often used to name girls, and to a lesser extent boys, in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka, as well as in many other countries influenced by Indic culture, like Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia and Laos.

Drawing in turn on these beliefs, the international Bahá'í community adopted this symbolism in the design of the Lotus Temple in New Delhi, India.

Other uses

Fruit of Nelumbo nucifera; the dried seed cup is commonly used in flower arrangements.
  • The Padma Shri, a civilian award given by the Government of India, has the words Padma ("lotus") and Sri in Devanagari script appear above and below a lotus flower on its obverse.
  • The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), a nationalist political party of India which claims to be at the forefront of India's cultural nationalism, uses the lotus as its election symbol.
  • Lotus Flower, a song by Radiohead on their 2011 album, The King of Limbs.
  • Japanese rock musician Miyavi uses the lotus and a crescent moon with the kanji of his name (meaning 'elegance') above, as his insignia.
  • Moriyama City's prefectural flower is the lotus.
  • Vietnam Airlines's logo comprises a golden lotus and is also mentioned in their frequent flyer program, the Golden Lotus Plus.
  • Lotus is burned in a powdered form as ceremonial incense, primarily in Buddhist temples.
  • Lotus is an Ayyavazhi symbol in south Tamil Nadu.
  • Dark Lotus
  • Lotus Flower Bomb, a song by Wale on his 2011 album, Ambition.
  • Flying Lotus, an experimental music producer, musician, and rapper.


Posted by Maddalena Frau on May 10, 2013 at 1:25 AM Comments comments (0)


The scientific definition of monoatomic gold

Monoatomic Gold is the non-metallic, non-toxic zero-valence form of Gold. Monoatomic Gold is a high temperature superconductor.

It can be manufactured alchemically out of 24carat metallic gold. It also occurs naturally in volcanic soils, seawater and in minute amounts in the purple or violet skins of fruits and vegetables and some medicinal plants such as red grapes, eggplant and violets.

In recent years, some researchers have erroneously equated monoatomic gold with the Philosopher’s stone, which it definitely is not: Monoatomic gold was known and used in the Pharmacopoeia of Western Medieval Alchemy as ‘the retrograded calx of Gold that cannot be revivified’ [meaning it cannot be returned to the metallic state by conventional metallurgical processes.

Monoatomic Gold is known and used in Ayurveda as a bhasma of Gold that passes the test of apunarbhavatva or ‘test of non-revivability’.

Monoatomic Gold is not known to contemporary Western allopathic medicine and must not be confused with the gold salts that are used in allopathic medicine, which exhibit metal toxicity. Monoatomic gold is not to be confused with colloidal gold either, which retains its metallic nature.

Monoatomic gold can appear in several colors; it is usually known as a white powder, but when treated with oxidizing acids, it becomes a purple powder, and is green in alkaline solutions.
Mono-atomic Gold, also known as Egyptian White Powder Gold, Fruit of the Tree of Life, Etherium Gold Powder, and Star-fire Gold of the Gods, is a mystical and alchemical substance used by the ancient people of Kemet (Egypt) to achieve super states of consciousness and mystical experiences.

Mono-atomic means, "single atom." It is non-metallic and non-toxic zero valence in nature, and can be made from 24 carat gold. Mono-atomic Gold is the result of alchemy, an ancient science practiced and mastered by the ancient people of Kemet (Khem) that dealt with changing base metals into gold.

Alchemy is the forerunner of modern day chemistry (Kemistry). While chemistry is beneficial, it is not alchemy. The youth are being taught chemistry today instead of al-khemistry (alchemy) on purpose.

There is a reason why the American public fool system does not teach American youth metaphysics and ancient arts, crafts, and sciences. Knowledge of metaphysics and the ancient sciences would free the youth before they could ever be trapped in the Matrix.

The people of Kemet (Khem) used to make gold cakes utilizing the white powder gold (Mono-atomic Gold).

These cakes helped the Kemetic people in many of their spiritual rituals and practices.

The spirituality and spiritual concepts and practices of the people of Kemet was so admired by other cultures, i.e. the Hebrews and Sumerians, that many cultures implemented these Kemetic spiritual concepts and practices into their own spiritual practices including the use of Mono-atomic Gold.

Mono-atomic Gold is made by taking 99.98% gold and changing its atomic structure. The end product is a white powder consisting of trillions of single gold atoms, each one literally lighter than the element "air."

Mono-atomic Gold induces and enhances states of euphoria, spiritual bliss, higher awareness (which is desperately needed on the planet); increases and enhances stamina (including sexual stamina), magnifies and sharpen insight, helps develop latent psychic ability, and produces cell realignment after usage.

The substance allows subconsciously held beliefs, worries, concerns, and doubts to surface sequentially so they can be understood, over-stood, and inner-stood.

Each issue (recorded in the chakras over the years and past lives) is brought to light one at a time so full attention can be given the issue for purposes of resolution and karmic cleansing.

Mono-atomic Gold neutralizes all negativity held in the cells as well as protecting the cells from disease.

The substance is essential in healing from any and all disease. The healing benefits of Mono-atomic Gold include strengthening the heart, toning and strengthening the pituitary gland and pineal gland, strengthening and revitalizing the thymus gland and thus boosting the immune (defense) system, enhancing the production of red blood cells (in the bone marrow), and causes all of the cells of the body to regenerate, including brain cells which you have been purposely lied to and told that they don't regenerate.

Gold used as - Medicine

In medieval times, gold was often seen as beneficial for the health, in the belief that something that rare and beautiful could not be anything but healthy.

Even some modern esotericists and forms of alternative medicine assign metallic gold a healing power.

Some gold salts do have anti-inflammatory properties and are used as pharmaceuticals in the treatment of arthritis and other similar conditions.

However, only salts and radioisotopes of gold are of pharmacological value, as elemental (metallic) gold is inert to all chemicals it encounters inside the body. In modern times, injectable gold has been proven to help to reduce the pain and swelling of rheumatoid arthritis and tuberculosis.

Gold alloys are used in restorative dentistry, especially in tooth restorations, such as crowns and permanent bridges.

The gold alloys' slight malleability facilitates the creation of a superior molar mating surface with other teeth and produces results that are generally more satisfactory than those produced by the creation of porcelain crowns.

The use of gold crowns in more prominent teeth such as incisors is favored in some cultures and discouraged in others.

Colloidal gold preparations (suspensions of gold nanoparticles) in water are intensely red-colored, and can be made with tightly controlled particle sizes up to a few tens of nanometers across by reduction of gold chloride with citrate or ascorbate ions.

Colloidal gold is used in research applications in medicine, biology and materials science.

The technique of immunogold labeling exploits the ability of the gold particles to adsorb protein molecules onto their surfaces.

Colloidal gold particles coated with specific antibodies can be used as probes for the presence and position of antigens on the surfaces of cells.

In ultrathin sections of tissues viewed by electron microscopy, the immunogold labels appear as extremely dense round spots at the position of the antigen.

Colloidal gold is also the form of gold used as gold paint on ceramics prior to firing.
Gold, or alloys of gold and palladium, are applied as conductive coating to biological specimens and other non-conducting materials such as plastics and glass to be viewed in a scanning electron microscope.

The coating, which is usually applied by sputtering with an argon plasma, has a triple role in this application. Gold's very high electrical conductivity drains electrical charge to earth, and its very high density provides stopping power for electrons in the electron beam, helping to limit the depth to which the electron beam penetrates the specimen.

This improves definition of the position and topography of the specimen surface and increases the spatial resolution of the image.

Gold also produces a high output of secondary electrons when irradiated by an electron beam, and these low-energy electrons are the most commonly used signal source used in the scanning electron microscope.
The isotope gold-198, (half-life 2.7 days) is used in some cancer treatments and for treating other diseases.

Atoms with quantum memory

Posted by Maddalena Frau on April 2, 2013 at 12:00 AM Comments comments (0)

The Atom chip (above) - in the background the measured distributions are shown, whicht characterize the quantum physical state of the condensate.


Order tends towards disorder. This is also true for quantum states. Measurements at the Vienna University of Technology show that in quantum mechanics this transition can be quite different from what we experience in our daily lives.

Ice cubes in a cocktail glass melt until an equilibrium state is reached in which the ice cubes are gone. After that, the geometric shape of the ice cubes is completely lost. The liquid does not contain any memory of their shape, the ordered ice crystal has turned into disordered water molecules. Ultra cold Bose-Einstein condensates behave differently; these highly ordered clouds of ultra cold particles also approach a disordered equilibrium state, but they retain some "memory" about their initial state for a remarkably long time.This phenomenon does not depend on the temperature, it seems to be a stable, fundamental property of quantum physics.

Melting ice cubes: all the information about the geometry is lost when the ice melts.

Stopover on the way to chaosIn 2012, the research group around Professor Jörg Schmiedmayer at the Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology (VCQ),

Vienna University of Technology, were able to show that they have found an intermediate state between order and disorder; the atoms of an ultra cold Bose-Einstein condensate tend towards an equilibrium state, in which their quantum physical properties are not visible any more.


This, however, does not happen continuously like the transition from an ice cube to liquid water. Instead, there is an intermediate step called "prethermalized state", in which the atoms remain for a surprisingly long time without forgetting about their quantum mechanical origin.

"If we split the atom cloud into two parts and recombine them after some time, a wave pattern forms", Jörg Schmiedmayer explains.

"That is proof that the atom clouds still contain information about having emerged from a highly ordered quantum physical state."


Intermediate state independent of temperature

Now the scientists have managed to take a closer look at this transition – and it turns out to be remarkably stable with respect to external conditions.

From experience, we are used to the opposite case: "Imagine a room full of air, and a vacuum in the room next to it", says Max Kuhnert (Vienna University of Technology). "When we open a door between those rooms, the system approaches an equilibrium, until the molecules are evenly distributed in the two rooms.

This transition, however, strongly depends on external parameters such as pressure and temperature.

" The higher the pressure and the temperature, the faster information about the initial state is lost – be it information about the initial distribution of air molecules or about the geometry of melting ice cubes.


Wave pattern, created by the interference of atom clouds.

"The prethermalized state of our atom clouds is reached quite independently from pressure and temperature", says Max Kuhnert.

The experiments, which have now been published in Physical Review Letters, show that this state is characterized by a new length scale. This so-called correlation length is a direct measure of the quantum memory of the ordered initial state. It is the length scale on which the quantum physical properties of the atom clouds can still be perceived.


"This emergent correlation length is defined by the density of the initial quantum gas, but it only becomes visible in the dynamics of the transition from an ordered state into the prethermalized state" says Jörg Schmiedmayer.

"The fact that this correlation length does not depend on the initial temperature at all strongly indicates that the prethermalized state is a fundamental property of quantum physics and has major significance", Max Kuhnert believes.

A deeper understanding of this quantum state is expected not only to explain ultra cold Bose-Einstein condensates, it may also shed some light on the processes in the early universe, or it could help to understand phenomena in the quark-gluon-plasma created in high energy particle accelerators.

More information: arxiv.org/abs/1211.5323

Provided by Vienna University of Technology